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Brief Research Statement 

Life doesn’t operate in silos, education shouldn’t either” (ease education). However, the traditional curriculum emphasizes silo-based instruction and does not adequately prepare the students for the demands of the 21st century workplace (e.g., collaboration, creativity). To address this limitation, IPECP research agenda focuses on tearing down silos in education through interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP). Central to IPECP is untangling the basic instructional, motivational, and psychological principles that underpin the success of IPECP in The University of Hong Kong.   

"The application of self-determination theory in explaining student achievement has been well-established in various contexts. However, its application to medical education, particularly in interprofessional education (IPE) remains underexplored. Understanding how students’ motivation plays a role in students’ engagement and achievement is essential to optimize efforts to improve learning and instruction. This two-stage study aims to contextualize the SDT framework to IPE through the adaptation of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction to IPE (Study 1) and to demonstrate how SDT can be applied in IPE by examining a model of SDT constructs (Study 2) in predicting outcomes (behavioral engagement, team effectiveness, collective dedication, goal achievement)."

Ganotice Jr, F. A., Chan, K. M., Chan, S. L., Chan, S. S. C., Fan, K. K. H., Lam, M. P., ... & Tipoe, G. L. (2023). Applying motivational framework in medical education: a self-determination theory perspectives. Medical Education Online, 28(1), 2178873.

"Team cohesiveness and collective efficacy have been construed as important characteristics of a high-functioning team. However, the psychological mechanism through which they promote positive outcomes remains unknown. Understanding this psychological process is important to teachers and programme implementers to yield actionable interventions that can be used to craft effective practices for optimizing team outcomes. This is especially true in interprofessional education (IPE) in medical education, where a team-based approach to patient management is promoted. Drawing from the social-cognitive theory, we examined a hypothesized model where team cohesiveness predicts collaboration outcomes (teamwork satisfaction, overall satisfaction with the team experience, and IPE goal attainment) via collective efficacy."

Ganotice, F. A., Chan, L., Shen, X., Lam, A. H. Y., Wong, G. H. Y., Liu, R. K. W., & Tipoe, G. L. (2022). Team cohesiveness and collective efficacy explain outcomes in interprofessional education. BMC Medical Education, 22(1), 1-9.

"Students' attitudes towards teamwork, roles, and responsibilities in interprofessional collaborative practice, both at the student and team levels, are important to attaining positive student- and team-level outcomes. The study contributes to the expansion of existing knowledge in medical education, theoretically, by adopting SIT as a lens through which collaborative learning in healthcare teams can be understood, and methodologically, by applying multi-level approaches and delineating important student- and team-level predictors of IPE outcomes."

Ganotice, F.A., Chan, S.S.C., Chow, A.M.Y., Fan, K.K.H., Khoo, U.S., King, R.B., Lam, M.P.S., Luk, P., Ng, A.Y.M., Wang, M.N., Yeung, S.S.S., Tipoe, G.L. (2022). What factors facilitate interprofessional collaboration outcomes in interprofessional education? A multi-level perspective. Nurse Education Today, 105393.

"The shift in the way how health care is delivered from exclusive (disciplinary) to a more collective and inclusive (interprofessional) has recently been gaining traction in health care. The need for this shift is even magnified when the health care system face unprecedented challenges that single expertise is no more enough. The promise of transformative power of collaboration in health care suggests that collective intelligence achieves tasks more effectively than a single expertise could achieve."

Ganotice, F. A., Yeung, S. S. S., & Tipoe, G. L. Nurturing the “Self” in Health Professions Education. Medical Education.

"We were able to demonstrate that SDT is a meaningful framework in understanding behavioral and collaboration outcomes in IPE. The major theoretical contribution of this study refers to the ability of students’ motivation to explain variance in their behavioral outcomes. That is, sense of autonomy consistently predicted team effectiveness, collective dedication, behavioral engagement, and goal achievement. Autonomous motivation among a sample of healthcare students can explain behavioral outcomes."

Ganotice, F. A., Gill, H., Fung, J., Chan J., & Tipoe, G. L. (2020). Autonomous motivation explains interprofessional education outcomes. Medical Education.

"Students’ readiness for interprofessional learning and attainment of IPE learning outcomes can be predicted directly or indirectly (via overall satisfaction with team experience) by collective efficacy. This finding shows that students’ readiness for interprofessional learning and attainment of IPE-learning outcomes is determined by their favourable team ability perception (CE)."

Ganotice, F. A. & Chan, L.K. (2021). Does collective efficacy drive readiness for interprofessional learning? Evidence from a large-scale interprofessional education program in Hong Kong. Journal of Interprofessional Care.

"The SPICE-R3 is a valid measure to examine Hong Kong healthcare students' interprofessional attitudes in online interprofessional education even during the pandemic."

Ganotice, F. A., Fan, K. H. K., Ng, Z. L. H., Tsoi, F. H. S., Wai, A. K. C., Worsley, A., Lin, X., Tipoe, G.L. (2021) The short version of Students’ Perceptions of Interprofessional Clinical Education-Revised (SPICE-R3): A confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Interprofessional Care.

"Results of the between-network analysis suggest that various subscales of IPAS correlated systematically with other theoretically relevant variables: teamwork attitudes, communication, and team effectiveness. The IPAS is a valid measure to examine predominantly Chinese healthcare and social care students’ interprofessional attitudes in online interprofessional education."

Ganotice, F. A., Tipoe, G. L., Chow, A. Y. M., Fan, K. K. H., Lam, M. P. S., Tsoi, F. H. S., Wang, M. N., (2021) To IPAS or not to IPAS? Examining the construct validity of Interprofessional Attitudes Scale among Hong Kong Chinese Sample. Journal of Interprofessional Care.

"Interprofessional Education (IPE) breaks educational silos by putting students from diverse backgrounds to be better collaborators by learning with, from, and about each other, thus providing optimal care to patients. An assumption inherent to IPE is that when healthcare professionals work as a cohesive team, quality of patient care improves."

IPE Sessions - Learning in alliance: Transitioning to Online IPE. (2020). Bau Institute of Medical & Health Sciences Education, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 25/08/2020 from

“The key characteristic of learners in computer-supported-IPE which is linked to team success is individual preparedness and team contribution... critical for the interprofessional teams to succeed is harnessing in team players (the students) the value of coming to class prepared as individuals and as important team members who are ready to contribute meaningfully in an interprofessional TBL." (Ganotice & Chan, 2019, p. 218)

Ganotice, F. A. & Chan, L. K. (2019). How can students succeed in computer-supported interprofessional team-based learning? Understanding the underlying psychological pathways using Biggs' 3P model. Computers in Human Behavior, 91, 211-219.

"Promising outcomes in IPTBL beyond an uniprofessional approach were revealed related to cultivating confidence, developing passion to learn, and enacting the nurse’s roles in these new nursing students.” (Chan, Wong, Chan, & Ganotice, 2019, p. 264)

Chan, K. W., Wong, F., Chan, L.K., & Ganotice, F. A. (2019). Interprofessional team based learning: A revealing process for cultivating professional identity among nursing students. Open Journal of Nursing, 9(3), 249-267.

“This study offers evidence that RIPLS is a valid instrument in the Hong Kong Chinese context which can be used in understanding Chinese healthcare students’ readiness for interprofessional learning.” (Ganotice & Chan, 2018, p. 73)

Ganotice, F. A., & Chan, L. K. (2018). Construct validation of the English version of Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS): Are Chinese undergraduate students ready for ‘shared learning’? Journal of Interprofessional Care, 32(1), 69-74.

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